Network protocols are the international standards or conventions that define some rules for effective communication between the computers on the network. TCP/IP, HTTP, UDP are some common protocols.
Back in old days when network communication was in infancy, different make equipment had proprietary standards of communication. People and big organisations felt the dire need of open and standard communication model which could be independent of the underlying hardware architecture of diverse networking devices. That's when TCP/IP reference model and OSI model came into existence.
TCP/IP reference model or internet protocol suite consists of a set of protocols as TCP (Transport Control Protocol) and IP (Internet Protocol). TCP/IP model defines internet or similar computer networks. Unlike OSI model, which has seven layers of communication, it has only four layers of communication as Application Layer, Transport Layer, Internet Layer and Link Layer.
Yes, it is safe to swim while you on periods. Period blood doesn't flow outside the vagina like it usually does due to the counter-pressure of the water. But You still need to wear some a tampon or a menstrual cup to avoid getting into a sticky situation.
Resin tooth filling typically contains a filler particle such as quartz, which provides the mixture's strength and color. It is costly as compared to silver tooth filling.
In some cases, the change in period blood color can indicate a health problem like fibroids, low estrogen levels, and even vaginosis.